Wednesday, August 31, 2011

CBSE Sample Papers | SA Term-1 | Class 10 I 2011-12

Sample Question Papers for Term I
(September 2011)
Science (Class IX & X)
Mathematics (Class IX & X)
Social Science (Class IX)
Sample Question Papers for Term II (March'2012)
Mathematics (Class IX)
Science (Class IX)
Social Science (Class IX)

9th Atoms and Molecules - Mole Concept and Problems based on mole concept

Mole Concept
we can express the quantity of a substance is expressed in terms of mole.
Mole is a fundamental unit in the System International d' Unités, the SI system, and it is used to measure the amount of substance In Latin mole means a "massive heap" of material

Mole is defined as the amount of substance that contains as many specified elementary particles as the number of atoms in 12g of carbon-12 isotope.

One mole is also defined as the amount of substance which contains Avogadro number (6.023 x 1023) of particles.
Avogadro number: Number of atoms or molecules or ions present in one mole of a substance is called Avogadro number. Its value is 6.023 x 1023

Therefore, one mole of any substance contains Avogadro number of particles. The particles may be atoms, molecules, ions etc

E.g. 1 mole of oxygen atoms = 6.023 x 1023 atoms, molecules, ions etc  of oxygen
                                               = 32g of O2
Problems (based on mole concept)

Monday, August 29, 2011

Trigonometric Ratios of 30and 60

Trigonometric Ratios of 300and 600
Let D ABC be an equilateral triangle whose sides have length a Draw

AD ^ BC, then D bisects the side BC. So, BD =  DC=  a/2
and < BAD = < DAC = 300.
Now,  in right triangle ADB, < BAD = 300 and BD=  a/2
So, AB2 =   AD2 +  BD2
a2   = AD2 + (a/2)2

AD  = 3/2 a 
Hence, we can find the trigonometric ratios of angle 300 from the right triangle BAD

Key Concept of Trigonometric Ratios for cbse class 10

The word trigonometry is a derivation from the Greek language and means measurement of triangles.
Hipparchus, a Greek astronomer and mathematician developed the subject trigonometry.
 The first trigonometric table was compiled by him. He is now known as “the Father of Trigonometry”.
The side that is opposite to the right angle is called the Hypotenuse. This is the longest side in a right triangle.
The side that is opposite to the angle i is called the Opposite side.

10th trigonometrical Identities

8th Science-Crop Production -Macro-Micro Nutrients-Manures-Fertilizers

Q. What are macro nutrient and micro nutrients?

Elements which are needed in large quantities for growth of the plants are called Macro Nutrients. They are Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulphur, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and Iron.

Elements which are needed by the plants in very small quantities are called Micro Nutrients. They are Manganese, Copper, Molybdenum, Zinc, Boron and Chlorine.

Q. What is manure ?

Manure is an organic substance and is prepared by the decomposition of plant and animal wastes
Based on the kind of biological materials used, manure can be classified as,     i) Compost & Vermi Compost     ii) Green Manure

Compost prepared by using earth worms to speed up the process of decomposition of plant and animal
wastes is called Vermi Compost.

Leguminous plants like Sunn-hemp or Cluster Bean are grown and then mulched by ploughing them back into the soil is called Green Manure

Q. What are the differences between Manures and Fertilizers

1. Manure is a natural substance obtained by the decomposition of cattle dung, human waste and plant waste.
1. Fertilizer is a mineral or chemical compound containing nutrients like Sulphur, Phosphorous, Nitrogen, etc.
2. Manures are organic substances.
2. Fertilizers are inorganic compounds
3. Manures can be prepared in fields
3. Fertilizers are manufactured in factories.
4. Manures contain all nutrients but in small quantities.
4. They contain higher quantities of one or more specific nutrients.
5. Manures add plenty of humus to soil and improve the texture of the soil.
5. Fertilizers do not result in the addition of humus to the soil.
6. Manures are not easily absorbed because they are less soluble in nature
6. . Fertilizers are soluble in water and it is easily absorbed.
7. . Manures are less soluble; they are not easily washed away from the soil and hence their effect is long lasting.
7. Fertilizers are easily washed away by water   and hence their effect is of shorter duration and require repeated application

Q. What do you know about Bio-fertilizers?

Fertilizers which are derived from living organisms are called Bio-fertilizers.The main source of bio-fertilizers are bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi.

Bio-fertilizers are renewable and non-polluting sources of plant nutrients. They also improve the soil condition. Rhizobium and Cyanobacteria such as Anabaena and Nostoc are some common bio-fertilizers.

Q. What are are different methods of controlling of the pests?

There are different methods of controlling of the pests. The most common method of controlling pests is
the use of pesticides.

Pesticides are classified as Insecticides, Fungicides, Weedicides, Rodenticides, etc., depending upon their use.
i) Insecticides : The chemical substances which are used to kill the insects are called insecticides.
e.g. DDT (Dichloro diphenyl trichloro ethane), Malathion etc.,

ii) Fungicides : The chemicals used to kill fungi are called fungicides. e.g. Bordeaux mixture.
iii) Weedicides : The chemical substances which are used to kill the weeds are called weedicides. e.g.2-4-D. (2-4-Dichloro phenoxy acetic acid)

iv) Rodenticides : The chemicals used to kill rodents like rats, mice and squirrel are called rodenticides,
e.g. Zinc Phosphate, Arsenic etc.

Q. What is Hybridization?

Hybridization is the method of producing improved varieties by crossing two or more plants of dissimilar genotypes together. A plant variety containing as many desirable characters as possible
can be produced by hybridization.
Hybridization involves selection of parents with desirable qualities. Useful characteristics are scattered in different varieties. It is possible to bring all the characters in a single variety by Hybridization.

Hybridization can be
i) Intervarietal (cross between two different varieties)
ii) Interspecific (cross between two species of the same genus)
iii) Intergeneric (cross between different genera)

Crop Production and Management
CBSE Study Notes Crops production
CBSE Practice Paper-1
CBSE Practice Paper-2
CBSE [Solved] Practice Paper -3       

CBSE | NCERT Chemistry E- Notes for Class 10

Posts with label 10th Carbon and its Compounds
Practice Paper Unsolved
Visit for more : Chemistry Adda

Sunday, August 28, 2011


The question paper is divided into four sections:
Section A: Reading Comprehension 15 marks
Section B: Writing 15 marks
Section C: Grammar 15 marks
Section D: Literature 35 marks
Marks are indicated against each question.
(Reading-15 Marks)
Q.1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow by writing the options that you consider the most appropriate in your answer sheet.                                                             (5 Marks)

Imagine 100 people walking on a beach in the middle of the night, stopping every once in a while to search for turtle eggs and hatchlings! I was a part of this walk recently in the heart of Chennai in Tamil Nadu! Our aim was to take them to the safety of a ‘hatchery’.

Kendriya Vidyalaya HOTS Questions for class 10 - 2011

CBSE Class X HOT Questions

Social Science-1 (English Medium) : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-1

Social Science-2 (English Medium) : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-2

Social Science-3 (English Medium) : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-3

Social Science-4 (English Medium) : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-4

Social Science-5 (English Medium) : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-5

Social Science-1 (Hindi Medium) : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-1

Social Science-2 (Hindi Medium) : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-2

Social Science-3 (Hindi Medium) : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-3

Social Science-4 (Hindi Medium) : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-4

Social Science-5 (Hindi Medium) : CBSE HOTS Questions Social Science-5

English : CBSE HOTS Questions English

Science : CBSE HOTS Questions Science

Science MCQ : CBSE HOTS Questions Science MCQ

Hindi : CBSE HOTS Questions Hindi

Sanskrit : CBSE HOTS Questions Sanskrit

Mathematics : CBSE HOTS Questions Mathematics Mathematics New

Links For   CBSE Class X Science Term-II

CBSE Class 10 HOTS Questions English


1. Babuli’s journey to his village was a journey to his past. Elucidate.

2. “Mother was not to been seen anywhere at the vicinity.” Comment upon the helplessness of the mother.

3. Babuli’s wife was already waiting for this event to take place. In the light of her behaviour bring out the materialistic greed taking precedence over familial ties.

4. Though Babuli had not been visiting home, but the news of partition made him feel orphaned. Comment upon the hidden fears that Babuli had.

5. Nowadays people are more inclined towards nuclear families than joint families. Comment upon the ‘I, me, mine’ attitude predominant among the present day youth.

6. Compare and contrast the responses of Babuli and his middle brother to the division of family property.


1. Media’s nature of sensationalizing small and big issues has been highlighted in the story. Giving references from the lesson explain the statement.

2. Although Cutie Pie is an alien yet he exhibits intense human emotions. Elaborate.

3. At various places in the story we realize that Che-tsal is an intelligent little creature. Point out the instances, which show this.

4. You are one of the scientists taking care of Che-stal. Write a letter to Dr. Spock, your senior, seeking his help in saving the alien.

5. On the basis of your reading of the lesson ‘Cutie pie’ point out the similarities between Cutie Pie and the humans, physical and mental.

6.One does not actually need words to communicate when one is in sync with another. Comment on the comfort level between Cutie Pie and C. H. Winters.


1. The postmaster had been doing his duty with a stern face. But one day he realized that a letter is not just scribbled words. It carries the warmth of relationship. He decides to make his staff aware of his feelings and ask them to be more sensitive towards the people they interact with. Write a speech on behalf of the postmaster, which he would deliver in the next staff meeting.

2. Age and experience mellow down a person. Comment with reference to the change in Ali’s outlook.

3. Comment why Ali’s journey to the post office has been considered as a pilgrimage?

4. ‘Stars still glowed, as happy memories light up a life that is nearing its close.’ Comment on the relevance of the above remark in the context of the story ‘The Letter’.

5. Karmic theory focusses on the dictum, ‘as you sow so shall you reap’. Discuss with reference to the story ‘The Letter’.

6. Only the wearer knows where the shoe pinches. It is only after his daughter fell ill that the postmaster realized what Ali was going through. Full of remorse you express your feelings in your entry in your diary. Write the diary entry.


1. War and terrorism play havoc in the lives of innocent people. Comment.

2. “We were in war, too, but we were children”. Comment upon the impact of war on the lives and minds of children.

3. Grandmother was an epitome of strength and sacrifice. Elucidate.

4. Narrator and her family were victims of the civil war going on in the country.

5. Grandmother never wanted to go back to her home. Elucidate the effect of war on her mind and soul, which marked her for life.

6.An individual’s response to circumstances gives us an insight into his or her character. Comment upon the responses of the grandfather and the grandmother to the tragedy that had befallen them.


1. As the play proceeds we start liking Scrooge though initially we want to hate him. Why do you think our attitude as readers changes?

2. What does Charles Dickens wish to achieve through the play “Christmas Carol”?

3. “Scrooge and Fred are poles apart”. Compare and contrast their characters.

4. Do you think Mr. Scrooge was inherently a good man or the fear of hell made him change his ways?

5. What intention of the playwright is reflected in the making the three ghosts visit Scrooge?

6. Money cannot buy happiness. Compare and contrast the lives of Mr. Scrooge and Mr. Cratchit in light of this statement.


1. Do you think Caeser’s death can be attributed to his failure to reads the omens properly or do the omens merely presage the inevitable?

2. How does Caesar continue to wield power over events even after his death?

3. The play ‘Julius Caesar’ focusses on the struggle between powerful individuals. What role do the plebians play in this struggle?

4. Who is the protagonist of the play- Caesar, who dies well before the end but whose power and name continue on or Brutus, the noble man, who falls because of his flaws?

5. Is rigidity and inflexibility of character an admirable trait or a flaw? Discuss Caeser and Brutus in light of the above statement.

6. The spoken word carries more weight. Discuss with reference to speeches of Brutus and Antony.


1. A scorpion attacks in self-defence but Man kills for pleasure or power. So do you think it is right to call the scorpion ‘the evil one’? Justify your answer.

2. When in dire need, all logic and reasoning fail. Explain with regard to the actions of the father in ‘Night of the Scorpion’.

3. Though illiterate, the peasants come up with their own explanation for mother’s suffering. What is their line of reasoning?

4. Even in danger a mother’s first thoughts are for the safety of her children. How is this exemplified in ‘Night of the Scorpion’?

5. What role does the weather play in heightening the drama in ‘Night of the Scorpion’?

6. The role of the holy man is of prime importance in solving the problems of the illiterate peasants. Comment with regard to ‘Night of the Scorpion’.


  1. The West Wind acts as a driving force for change and rejuvenation in human and natural world. Explain.
  2. The word ‘quivering’ is not just used to describe the reflection of images in water. It is also used to show a sense of fear, whic seems to be the most common mood and emotion in the poem. Justify.
  3. “Ode to the West Wind” is a symbolic poem. Discuss.
  4. The words ‘unextinguished hearth’ represents the poet’s undying passion. Justify.
  5. Bring out the relation between the West Wind and the speaker (poet).
  6. Do you think, the youth has the power, which, if used constructively can bring about a change in the society. How?


1. The poem describes the present scenario of our social world as to how a person who is doing well in life is pulled down. Comment

2. Nowadays it is survival of the smartest and not the fittest. Comment keeping the frog in mind.

3. The character of the frog and the nightingale epitomize vice and virtue respectively. Elucidate.

4. The poem portrays the need for everyone to realize their own capacities, capabilities, potential and limitations. Comment keeping the nightingale in mind.

5. Talent alone is not enough to succeed in today’s world. Comment on the success of the frog and the failure of the nightingale.

6. The nightingale is unable to take the constant pressure to perform and succumbs to it. Relate its experience to your own as a Board class student and write about the pressure on you to excel.


1. ‘Mirror’ reflects the inner turmoil of Sylvia Plath. Comment.

2. The reader is positioned to see the mirror as an unsympathetic observer. Justify.

3. Everyone uses a mirror. Based on your own experience and the reading of the poem, describe its qualities.

4. Mirror represents truth and truth is disturbing. Explain.

5. Comment on the symbolic significance of the comparison of the woman with a terrible fish in the poem ‘Mirror’.

6. Mirror is man’s best friend in youth and the worst enemy in oldage. Comment with reference to the poem ‘Mirror’.


1. S. T. Coleridge in his poem highlights the Christian concept of sin, repentance, punishment and redemption. Explain.

2. Sailors hail Albatross as a “Christian soul”. Illustrate.

3. The other mariners kept changing their opinion about the killing of Albatross. What does this reveal about their character?

4. Do you think the ancient mariner did the right thing by killing the bird? Justify your answer.
Was it right on the part of the other mariners to hang a dead Albatross around the neck of the ancient mariner? Give reasons for your answer.

Compare and contrast the state of mind of the wedding guest and the mariner.

A. 2- Read the following poem and answer the questions that follows: 8 marks

Her arms across her breast she laid,

She was more fair than words can say.

Barefooted came the beggar-maid.

Before the king

In robe and crown the king step down,

To meet and greet on her way.

‘It’s no wonder’ said the lords.

‘She is more beautiful than day’

As shines the moon in clouded skies,

She in her poor attire was seen,

One praised her ankles, one her eyes,

One her dark hair and lovely smile,

So sweet a face, such angel grace

In all that land had never been,

The king swore a royal oath,

‘This beggar-maid shall be my queen!

A 2. 1-(a) Who was the beggar mind ?

(b) With which two aspects of nature is compared with ?

(c) How did the king act on seeing the maid ?

(d) Why were,nt the lord surprised when the king went down ?

A 2.2 On the basis of your reading of the poem. Complete the following.

(a) Give two words which show the beggar’s maid way of dressing…….

(b) Name a celestial being she is compared to……….

(c) Give another word for ‘regal promise’……..

(d) In one line describe the king’s simplicity………


1. Do you think Caeser’s death can be attributed to his failure to reads the omens properly or do the omens merely presage the inevitable?

2. How does Caesar continue to wield power over events even after his death?

3. The play ‘Julius Caesar’ focusses on the struggle between powerful individuals. What role do the plebians play in this struggle?

4. Who is the protagonist of the play- Caesar, who dies well before the end but whose power and name continue on or Brutus, the noble man, who falls because of his flaws?

5. Is rigidity and inflexibility of character an admirable trait or a flaw? Discuss Caeser and Brutus in light of the above statement.

6. The spoken word carries more weight. Discuss with reference to speeches of Brutus and Antony

7.What was Calpurnia’s plea? How did Caesar take it?

8. Was Caesar adamant in not responding to his wife’s plea?

9.Caesar wanted to go forth, come what may. Which aspect of his personality you find here?

10. What was Calpurnia afraid of? How did she express her fear in convincing Caesar?

11. Caesar was unable to overrule Calpurnia’s argument. How did Calpurnia manage that?

12. What did Caesar ask Decius Brutus to convey to senators? Why was he in dilemma?

13. Decius Brutus must have been crest fallen as he heard Caesar was not going along with him. How did he save the situation in his favour?

14. Was Caesar searching for an excuse to go for crowning? How did Decius Brutus help him?

15. What made Caesar chide his wife?

16. What role did Metellus Cimber play in arousing Caesar’s anger?

17. How did Caesar respond to Cassius plea to forgive Publius Cimber?

18. The plea to forgive Publius Cimber was merely an excuse for the conspirators to perform an evil task. Elaborate.

19. “Et tu Brute”. This statement throws light on the characters of Caesar and Brutus both. How?

20. How did Antony glorify Caesar soon after his murder?

Friday, August 26, 2011


1. Nationalism in Europe and India
Compare the policies and methods used by Otto von Bismarck and Sardar Vallabhai Patel in unification of Germany and integration of States of India respectively. The report should include :-
  • Condition of Germany before 1871 (unification)
  • Condition of India immediately after 1947
  • Why the need for unification in both the places
  • Emergence of Bismarck and Sardar Patel, their brief life history
  • Their role in unification and integration.
  • Similarities and differences between the methods adopted by the two leaders
  • How did the unification affect the growth of the respective countries.
You may refer to the following websites:

Books : Any European History book on 19th century and Integration of States by V.P. Menon

2. Evolution and significance of the symbols associated with India’s freedom movement
  • Need for symbols in general and during Freedom struggle
  • Evolution of the symbols over a period of time. (Any two symbols out of the flag, a song, an object like the Charkha, a khadi, a novel, a place a newspaper like Harijan etc. may be selected).
  • The impact of symbols on common people during the course of the freedom movement – how and in what occasions were they used
  • How did they help in the making of the Indian nation-did they give a sense of identity?
  • What do these symbols mean to you today?
  • Design a symbol for 21st century reflecting its nationhood-Explain the symbol
You may refer to the following websites :

RevisedSyllabus for Science and Maths by NCERT

NCERT has developed core syllabi in Biology, Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics at higher secondary stage in collaboration with Council of Boards of Secondary Education and CBSE and a core syllabus in Commerce would be completed by next month.
The idea is to provide a level-playing field to all students to join professional courses. Twenty-one educational boards had earlier agreed to adopt a core curriculum in science and mathematics at secondary level following a consensus arrived on this issue at the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) meet in August 2009 to bring uniformity in these streams.
In August 2009, CABE had emphasised the need for all states to modify their curriculum, syllabi and textbooks on the basis of NCF-2005. It also endorsed the need for a core curriculum in science and mathematics at secondary and higher secondary levels across all Education Boards in the country, so as to provide a level playing field to all students to join professional courses.
However, Mr. Kapil Sibal made it clear the government has no proposal to enforce a uniform school curriculum

Click Here for download of Syllabus at Elementary Level
Click Here for download of Syllabus at Higher Secondary Level
Revised Syllabus of Biology,Chemistry,Mathematics and Physics at Higher Secondary Stage

Revised Syllabus of Biology

Revised Syllabus of Chemistry

Revised Syllabus of Mathematics

Revised Syllabus of Physics
Syllabus for Additional Courses for Higher Secondary Classes

Human Ecology And Family Sciences 

Art Education

Graphic Design

Indian Crafts

The Computer And Communication Technologies (CCT)

Media Studies for class I to XII

Health & Physical Education for Class I - X