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## Thursday, March 31, 2011

### CBSE ADDA: Motion and Rest Notes part 1

CBSE ADDA: Motion and Rest Notes part 1: "CBSE ADDA http://jsunilclasses.weebly.com/ Introduction to MotionIn the physical world, one of the most common phenomena is motion. T..."

### CBSE ADDA: Motion and Rest Notes part 3

CBSE ADDA: Motion and Rest Notes part 3: "CBSE ADDA Distance-Time Graph for Uniform Motion Distance in km0102030405060 Time10.00 am10.15 am10.30 am10.45 am11.00 am11.15 am11.30 am T..."

### CBSE ADDA: Motion and Rest Notes part 4

CBSE ADDA: Motion and Rest Notes part 4: "CBSE ADDA AccelerationAll of us know that a car moving on road does not have a uniform velocity. Either the speed or the direction changes...."

### CBSE ADDA: Motion and Rest Notes part 5

CBSE ADDA: Motion and Rest Notes part 5: "CBSE ADDA Uniform Velocity and Non-uniform VelocityImagine that two athletes Ram and Shyam are running with a uniform speed of 5 m/s. Ram m..."

### CBSE ADDA: Motion and Rest Notes part 6

CBSE ADDA: Motion and Rest Notes part 6: "CBSE ADDA Equations of MotionThe variable quantities in a uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion are time, speed, distance covered and ac..."

### CBSE_NCERT _The Frog and the Nightingale - Multiple Choice Test

MCQ _The Frog and the Nightingale - Multiple Choice Test
Question:    Where does the frog croak?
 1 In Bingle bog 2 From dusk to dawn 3 On the Sumac tree 4 On a toadstool
Answer:    In Bingle bog
Question:    What kind of reaction did the animals display to the frog's songs?
 1 They hated it 2 They adored it 3 They ignored it 4 They tried to improve it
Answer:    They hated it
Question:    Why were the animals of the Bog dumbstruck?
 1 The frog sang very well 2 The nightingale sang melodiously 3 The moon shone brightly 4 All the animals came to the same place
Answer:    The nightingale sang melodiously
Question:    One night when the nightingale was about to sing she was startled. What startled her?
 1 The frog's advice 2 The frog's croak 3 The frog's movement 4 The frog's scolding
Answer:    The frog's croak
Question:    What did the frog claim to be?
 1 A great teacher 2 The owner of the sumac tree 3 A publisher 4 The king of the Bog
Answer:    The owner of the sumac tree
Question:    'I don't think the song's divine
But - oh - well - at least it's mine.'
What does the nightingale imply by the last line?
 1 She does not like the frog's songs 2 She sings from her heart 3 She wants him to train her 4 She is haughty
Answer:    She sings from her heart
Question:    Animals for miles around
Flocked towards the magic sound
 1 skill and praise 2 art and fire 3 inspiration and skill 4 flattery and money
Answer:    skill and praise
Question:    In which weather does the nightingale not prefer to sing?
 1 sunny weather 2 rainy weather 3 winter 4 autumn
Question:    'So the frog and nightingale journeyed up and down the scale'. This line refers to their
 1 travel in Bingle Bog 2 singing 3 movement on the tree 4 popularity rating

Question:    Which of the following do not indicate the nightingale's growing popularity?
 1 Attendance by the aristocrats 2 The joy of the frog 3 The sale of tickets 4 The frog's reprimand
Answer:   The frog's reprimand
Question:    The birds and beasts stopped coming to the concert because the nightingale's song
 1 was always the same 2 was uninspired 3 was too loud 4 had no trills

was uninspired
Question:    The frog says that the nightingale was 'for too prone to influence.'
 1 The nightingale was not like that 2 The frog was too proud 3 It was this quality that fetched him money 4 It was the frog who was prone to influence

### 10th Poetry : The Frog and the Nightingale

Poet: Vikram Seth was born in Calcutta in 1952. He left India to study at Oxford where he earned degrees in philosophy, economics, and politics, and went on to study creative writing at Stanford and classical Chinese poetry in China at Nanjing University. His first novel, The Golden Gate, is written entirely in tetrameter sonnets, something that had never been done in the English language before. The Suitable Boy, his prose fiction debut, examined multigenerational Hindu or Muslim conflict in 1950s India and holds the distinction of being the longest single volume ever published in English. But Seth is much more than a literary statistic in the Guinness Book of World Records.

Introduction

Our self-image is often based on what others make us believe we are. A poor self-image can do irreparable damage to us.You are what you think you are. Our self-image is often based on what others make us believe we are. A poor self-image can do irreparable damage to us.
Think of a frog, and immediately, you are reminded of its croaking. Think of a nightingale and its melodious voice comes to your mind. Yet, a frog is cunning enough to make a nightingale feel small and diffident about her singing.

Summary

The poet, Vikram Seth, very cleverly gives us a message of the importance of self-confidence and moral courage in his poem - The 'Frog and the Nightingale'. Once in a bog, a frog sat under a Sumac tree and croaked all night in a loud and unpleasant voice. The other creatures loathed his voice but their complaints, insults and brickbats couldn't stop him from croaking stubbornly and pompously, insensitive to the disturbance he was causing.

Then, one night a nightingale appears at the bog. Her melodious voice captures the admiring attention of the creatures of the Bingle Bog. Ducks and herons swim towards the Sumac tree to hear the nightingale serenade. Some lonely creature even weeps hearing her song. When she stops, there is thunderous applause with the creatures demanding a repeat performance (encore). The jealous frog disturbed by the intrusion of a challenging rival listens to the nightingale dumbstruck.

Next night, when the modest bird prepares to sing, the plotting frog interrupts and posing as a music critic, says that the technique was fine, of course, but it lacks a certain force. Unassuming and not used to any kind of criticism, she defends herself by saying, "At least its mine".
The heartless frog convinces the nightingale that she was in need of training that only he could provide. The nightingale, lacking in confidence and extremely gullible agrees and flatters him, saying that he was Mozart in disguise. The frog capitalized on the nightingale's servile attitude and said that he would charge a modest fee, which would not harm her.

The nightingale soon became famous and the frog grew richer, earning money from her concerts. Eminent personalities like the Owl (Earl) of Sandwich and Duck (Duke) of Kent attend the concerts. The frog sat and watched with mixed feelings of happiness and bitterness. Happy because he was earning money and jealous because the bird was receiving so much attention.

Meanwhile, the frog makes the nightingale rehearse hard even when it rained and constantly criticized and abused her, ensuring that she became broken in spirit. Fired and spent, her voice lost its beauty and the creatures stopped coming to hear her sing. Morose and depressed, she refused to sing, but the frog goaded her to practice. Scared and unhappy, the nightingale tried, burst a vein, and died.
The frog, unsympathetic, dismissed her off - calling her 'stupid'. A shrewd judge of character, he summed her up saying that the nightingale was too nervous and prone to influence, hence bringing her own downfall. Now, the frog once more sings at night in his bog - unrivalled.

1. Where did the Frog sit and sing?

Ans. The Frog sat under a Sumac tree in the Bingle Bog.

2. What was the reaction of the creatures to the Frog's singing?

Ans: They hated his singing. They begged him to stop. They hurled abuses and stones at him but it had no effect.
3."In this I've long been known for my splendid baritone". Explain.

Ans: The frog is very presumptuous and boastful. He is also lying.

4."You'll remain a mere beginner. But with me you'll be a winner". What does this reveal about the frog's character?

Ans:The frog is very presumptuous and boastful.

5."This is a fairy tale - And you're Mozart in disguise. Come to earth before my eyes". What does this reveal about the Nightingale's character?

Ans:The bird is fawning. She is also not a good judge of character.

6.Explain the lines: "And the Sumac tree was bowed with a breathless titled Crowd".

Ans.There were so many creatures sitting on the Sumac tree listening to the bird's singing. These were well-known personalities such as the Owl of Sandwich, Duck of Kent, Matin Cardinal Mephisto who had come to enjoy the concert.
7.Explain the lines: "And the frog with great precision counted heads and charged admission".

Ans:The money-minded frog was charging an entrance fee for the Nightingale's concerts so he was busy selling tickets to each one of them and collecting money from them.

8.Said the frog 'I tried to teach her but she was a stupid creature' , do you agree with the Frog's view. Give two reasons to support your answer.

Ans.Yes, I agree because the bird was not a good judge of character and could not see through the frog. She did not have confidence in herself and was very gullible.

9. Not too bad.... But far too long the technique was fine, of course, but it lacked a certain force". What does this reveal about the Frog's nature?

Ans. The frog is behaving extremely superior and in a condescending manner. He is also extremely cunning and is trying to convince her to take training from him.

10. "And the ticket office gross crashed, and she grew more morose".
a) Why did the ticket office gross crash?
b) Why did the bird grow morose?

Ans.a) The bird was tired and sick. The spirit was broken. Her voice lost its beauty and the people got tried of her voice and stopped coming.
b) The frog was successful in breaking the bird's spirit. He was goading her to practice harder. The bird could not take in the pressure and grew depressed and sad.
11.Give a character sketch of the Frog.
Answer: The Frog is a cunning and stubborn creature. Brimming with confidence, he did not stop singing even when bricks are thrown at him. He is jealous of the Nightingale's singing and cleverly plans to destroy her. Winning her trust he forces her to practice hard all the while criticizing and abusing her. He is a mercenary and benefits from her concerts. So hard hearted he is that he does not even soften when she dies dismissing her as a stupid creature who deserves her end. A shrewd judge of character, he capitalises on the Nightingale's weak and timid nature.

12.Give a character sketch of the Nightingale.

Answer: The Nightingale is shy, timid and modest to a fault. She is not a good judge of character and cannot see through the Frog's plotting and scheming. She is easily influenced and forgets that one should sing for one self and not for others. In a way, the bird is responsible for her own tragedy.

13.How did the Nightingale meet her death?

Answer: The Nightingale practiced very hard in the rain. Her voice grew hoarse and lost its beauty. The animals stopped coming to hear her sing. She grew sad and depressed because she had got accustomed to the applause and praise. Finally, one day when she was forced to practice she burst a vein and died.

14.How did the Frog scheme to break the birds spirit and destroy her?

Answer: The Frog was clever. He appeared before her as a music critic and promised to train her. He got her addicted to the appreciation of the audience. Forcing her to practice in bad weather, he broke her physically. He also ruined her mentally by constantly scolding and undermining her confidence. Finally, heartlessly, he forced her to practice when she was not up to it. She tried, but burst a vein and died.

15. "Well poor bird she should have known.
That your song must be your own".Is the Frog right in his view? Give reasons to support your answer.

Ans: The Frog is right. The bird should have continued singing for herself. She should have had confidence in herself and not allowed the frog to destroy her.

16.Inspite of having a melodious voice and being a crowd puller the nightingale turns out to be a loser and dies. Is she responsible for her own downfall?

Ans:The nightingale has an enchanting voice and she enthralls the creatures of the bingle bog with her singing. The Cunning and jealous frog with his cacaphonic voice decides to ruin her. The nightingale is different and a poor judge of character. She comes under the influence of the manipulate frog who trains her in bad weather and makes her in over practice. As a result the nightingale loses her confidence, her health and finally pays for her foolishness with her life. The bird's gullibility and servility leads to her tragic end

17."Now the nightingale, inspired flushed with confidence, and fired with both art and adoration sang"
(a) Explain 'art and adoration' (b) What was the outcome of her singing?

Ans.(a) The nightingale was elated because the frog, who she thought was a music critic, had appreciated her singing. She was also very thrilled because she was enjoying the adulation of the public when she sang.

(b). She became a huge success. Creatures from all over came to listen to her singing. Very important creatures like the coot of monte cristo and duck of kent and ladies with tiaras glittering came to listen to her. The frog collected money from the concerts and grew richer. Finally with the frog's persuasion she sang more and more, burst a vein and died.

18. And the foghorn of the frog blared unrivalled through the bog.
(a). Explain 'foghorn'     (b). Why was he 'unrivalled' now?

Answer: (a)  Foghorn is a loud unpleasant noise which warns ships against dangers in the frog. The unpleasant cacaphonic voice of the frog is compared to the foghorn.

(b) The frog had been singing in the bog despite the criticism and insults heaped on him by the creatures of the bingle bog. With the arrival of the nightingale he felt threatened. He planned and schemed to put the bird out of the way. He earned money from her concerts, finally, when the nightingale dies, he is relieved and happily goes back to singing in the bog.

19. What was the philosophy of the frog? Do you agree with it?

Answer: The frog despite his wicked nature had a sound philosophy of life. He believed that "your song must be your own". He had confidence to sing though he received so many brickbats. Nothing could still his determination to sing because he enjoyed it. In contrast the nightingale was out to please people and finally destroyed herself. I do agree with the frog that one should trust oneself and not come under the influence of another person. Self-confidence and individuality are two important aspects of a happy and well-developed personality.

### 9th science Self Evaluation test paper Matter in our surrounding solved questions

Self Evaluation test paper Matter  in our surrounding solved questions
Q1 what are the states of Matter around us?
Ans The matter around us exists in three states— solid, liquid and gas.
Q2 In which state of matter there will be maximum force of attraction between particles?
Ans. The maximum forces of attraction between the particles will be in Solid state.
Q3 In which state of matter there will be maximum kinetic energy of the particles?
Ans The maximum kinetic energy of the particles will be in gaseous state of matter.
Q4 What do you mean by Sublimation
Ans Sublimation is the change of gaseous state directly to solid state without going through liquid state,
and vice versa.
Q5 What do you mean by Latent heat of vaporization?
Ans Latent heat of vaporization is the heat energy required to change1 kg of a liquid to gas at
atmospheric pressure at its boiling point.
Q6 What do you mean by Latent heat of fusion?
Ans Latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy required to change 1 kg of solid into liquid at its
melting point.
Q7 In which unit pressure is measured?

## Tuesday, March 29, 2011

### Self Evaluation Sample paper physics class 9 Chapter - Motion

1. Differentiate between distance and displacement?

2. Derive mathematically the first equation of motion V=u + at?

3. Calculate the acceleration of a body which starts from rest and travels 87.5m 5sec?

4. Define uniform velocity and uniform acceleration?

5. Derive the second equation of motion, s = ut + ½ at 2 numerically?

6. Calculate the acceleration and distance of the body moving with 5m/s2 which comes to rest after traveling for 6sec?

### Motion and Rest :Textbook Class-9 Science Important Exercise Questions Solved

Q.1: An athlete completes one round of circular track of diameter 200 m in 40 sec. What will be the distance covered and the displacement at the end of 2 minutes 20 sec?
Ans:  Time taken = 2 min 20 sec = 140 sec.
Radius, r = 100 m.
In 40 sec the athlete complete one round.
So, in 140 sec the athlete will complete = 140 ÷ 40 = 3.5 (three and a half) round.
Or, distance covered in 140 sec = 2πr x 3.5 = 2 x 22/7 x 100 x 3.5 = 2200 m, Ans.
At the end of his motion, the athlete will be in the diametrically opposite position.
Or, displacement = diameter = 200 m, Ans.

Q.2: Joseph jogs from one end A to another end B of a straight 300 m road in 2 minutes and 30 sec and then turns around and jogs 100 m back to point C in another 1 minute. What are Joseph’s average speeds and velocities in jogging (a) from A to B (b) from A to C?
Ans:
(a) For motion from A to B:  distance covered = 300 m; displacement = 300 m.
time taken = 150 sec.
we know, average speed = distance covered ÷ time taken = 300 m ÷ 150 sec = 2 ms‑1 Ans.
(b) For motion from A to C:
distance covered = 300 + 100 = 400 m.
displacement = AB - CB = 300 - 100 = 200 m.
time taken = 2.5 min + 1 min = 3.5 min = 210 sec.
Average speed = distance covered ÷ time taken = 400 ÷ 210 = 1.90 ms-1
Average velocity = displacement covered ÷ time taken = 200 m ÷ 210 sec = 0.952ms-1.
Q.3: Abdul while driving to school computes the average speed for his trip to be 20 kmh-1. On his return trip along the same route, there is less traffic and the average speed is 30 kmh-1. What is the average speed of Abul’s trip?Ans:  Let one side distance = x km.
Time taken for forward trip= at a speed of 20 km/h = Distance / Speed = x/20 h.
Time taken in return trip at a speed of 30 km/h = x/30 h.
Total time for the whole trip = x/20 + x/30 = 5x/60 h.
Total distance covered = 2x km.
We know, average speed = Total distance ÷ total time = 2x ÷ (5x/60) = 24 kmh-1
Q.4: A motor boat starting from rest on a lake accelerates in a straight line at a constant rate of 3.0 ms-2for 8.0 s. How far does the boat travel during this time?
Ans: Here, u = 0, a = 3 ms-2, t = 8 s
Since, s = ut + ½ at2 = 0 x 8 + ½ x 3 x 82 = 96 m.
Q.5: A driver of a car travelling at 52 kmh-1 applies the brakes and accelerates uniformly in the opposite direction. The car stops after 5 s. Another driver going at 34 kmh-1 in another car applies his brakes slowly and stops in 10 s. On the same graph paper, plot the speed versus time graphs for two cars. Which of the two cars travelled farther after the brakes were applied?
Ans: AB and CD are the time graphs for the two cars whose initial speeds are 52 km/h and 34 km/h, respectively.
Distance covered by the first car before coming to rest
= Area of triangle AOB= ½ x AO x BO= ½ x 52 kmh-1 x 5 s
= ½ x (52 x 1000 x 1/3600) ms-1 x 5 s = 36.1 m
Distance covered by the second car before coming to rest = Area of triangle COD
= ½ x CO x DO  = ½ x 34 km h-1 x 10 s
= ½ x (34 x 1000 x 1/3600) ms-1 x10 s = 47.2 m
Thus, the second car travels farther than the first car after they applied the brakes.
Q.7: A ball is gently dropped from a height of 20 m. If its velocity increases uniformly at the rate of 10ms-2, with what velocity will it strike the ground? After what time will it strike the ground?Ans: Here, u = 0, s = 20 m, a = 10 ms-2, v = ?, t = ?
As, v2 - u2 = 2as
So, v2 - 02 = 2 x 10 x 20 = 400
or, v = 20 ms-1.
And t = (v - u) ÷ a = 20 ÷ 10 = 2 s.
Q.9: State which of the following situations are possible and give an example of each of the following -
(a) an object with a constant acceleration but with zero velocity,
(b) an object moving in a certain direction with an acceleration in the perpendicular direction.
Ans:
(a) Yes, a body can have acceleration even when its velocity is zero. When a body is thrown up, at highest point its velocity is zero but it has acceleration equal to acceleration due to gravity.
(b) Yes, an acceleration moving horizontally is acted upon by acceleration due to gravity that acts vertically downwards.
Q.10: An artificial is moving in a circular orbit of radius 42250 km. Calculate its speed if it takes 24 hrs to revolve around the earth.
Ans: Here, r = 42250 km = 42250000 m
T = 24 h = 24 x 60 x 60 s
Speed, v = 2πr ÷ T = (2 x 3.14 x 42250000) ÷ (24 x 60 x 60) m/s = 3070.9 m/s = 3.07 km/s Ans.

### Chapter 3 - Democracy And Diversity Political Science

Chapter 3 - Democracy And DiversitySocial division:- Division of the society on the basis of language, region, caste, colour or race and sex. It signifies linguistic and regional diversity. Social differences:- Social differences are the situations where the people are discriminated against on the basis of social, economic and racial inequality. It gives way to social diversity which is different from society to society. The black power: It was a movement started by black people in 1966 against racialism and the practice of apartheid. It was a militant movement advocating even violence if necessary to end racism in the US. Overlapping differences: Social differences which overlap other differences are known as overlapping differences e.g., difference between the blacks and whites became a social division in US because the Blacks tend to be poor homeless and discriminated against.

Cross-Cutting Differences: If social differences cross cut one another, it is known as cross cutting differences. In another way in this situation groups that share a common interest on one issue are likely to be in different sides on a different issue.

Homogenous Society:- Homogenous society signifies absence of significant ethnic differences. It is a society that has similar kinds of people or inhabitants. Migrants: Anybody who shifts from one region or country to another region within a country or to another country for the purpose of work or other economic opportunities. Minority: It refers to community who are less than half of the total population of the country. The idea of minority at national level is totally different from what it is at state level.

Q.1.  ‘Most of the social differences are based on accident of birth.’ Explain.

Ans. The social differences are mostly based on accident of birth. Normally, we don’t choose to belong to our community. We belong to it simply because we were born to it. We all experience social differences based on accident of birth in our everyday lives. People around us are male or female, they are tall and short, have different kinds of complexions, or have different physical abilities or disabilities.

Q.2.  What is a homogenous society? Give two examples.
Ans. A society that has similar kinds of people, especially where there are no significant ethnic differences. For example, Germany and Sweden.

Q.3.  Mention one impact of migration.

Ans. The process of migration is converting the homogeneous countries into heterogeneous countries because migrants bring with them their own culture, and tend to form a different social community.

Q. 4 How are the social divisions reflected in politics? Explain.

Ans.1. Political parties talk about social divisions, make different promises to different communities, look after due representation of various communities, and make policies to redress the grievances of the disadvantaged communities.
2. Social divisions affect voting in most countries. People from one community tend to prefer a party more than others. In many countries, there are parties that focus only on one community.

Q. 5. Name the two athletes who raised the issue of Civil Rights in the Mexico Olympics. What methods were used by them?

Ans. Tommie Smith and John Carlos
1. They received their medals without shoes, but with socks to represent Black poverty.
2. Smith wore a black scarf around his neck to represent Black pride.
3. Carlos wore a string of beads to commemorate Black People, who had been killed.

Q. 6.  ‘Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions.’ Explain.
Ans. 1. When one social difference overlaps another difference, it is known as overlapping social difference.
2. Overlapping social differences between Blacks and Whites became a social division in the United States. Overlapping social difference became the main factor for the Black Power Militant Movement.
3. Even in India, Dalits face discrimination and injustice. These kinds of situations produce social divisions which are harmful for democracy and weaken the basic foundation of democracy.

Q. 7. Explain the overlapping and cross-cutting differences.
Ans. Overlapping differences1. These social divisions take place when some social differences overlaps with many other differences.
2. The difference between the Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in the United States because historically most of the Blacks are poor, homeless and discriminated.
3. In India, the Dalits tend to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice.
4. These kinds of situation produce social divisions which are harmful for democracy, and weaken the basic foundation of democracy.
5. When one kind of social difference become more important than any other, and people start feeling that, they belong to different communities then this can lead to the disintegration of the country.

Cross-cutting differences
1. Under cross cutting differences, people share common interest on one issue but are likely to be on different side on another issue.
2. Cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate.
3. Netherland and Northern Ireland are Christian countries divided into Catholics and Protestants.
4. In Netherland class and religion tend to cut across each other. This means Catholics and the Protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich.

Q. 8. What are the bases of social differences?

Ans. Social Differences are based on two main factors:
1. On the basis of accident of Birth
2. On the basis of our choices.

Differences on the basis of Birth
1. Normally we don’t choose to belong to our community. We belong to it simply because we are born into it.
2. People around us, have different physical abilities or disabilities.

Differences on the basis of choices
1. Some people are atheists. They don’t believe in god or any religion.
2. Some people choose to follow a religion other than the one in which they are born.
3. Most of us choose what to study, which occupation to take up and which games or cultural activities to take part in.

Q. 9 How do social divisions affect politics?

Ans. Negative Impact1. It would appear that the combination of politics and social divisions is very dangerous and explosive.
2. Democracy involves competition among various political units/parties. Their competition tends to divide the society.
3. If they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions it can make social division into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.

Positive Impact
1. At the same time every expression of social divisions in politics does not lead to such disasters because wherever social divisions exist, they are reflected in politics.
2. In democracy political parties would talk about these divisions, they make different promises to different communities, look after due representation of various communities.
3. Social divisions also affect voting in most countries. People from one community tend to prefer some party more than others.

Q. 10. What are the three determinants to accommodate social divisions in politics?
Ans .
1. Role of Identity:- Outcome depends on how people perceive their identities. If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate.
2. Role of community and culture:- The outcome depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
3. The role of political party and government:- In another way political outcome of social divisions depends on how the government reacts to demands of different groups. This is very much observed in Belgium and Sri Lanka. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions becomes less threatening for the country.

### Chapter– 2 Federalism Political Science

Federalism: Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country. Unitary System: Unitary system is a system of government in which either there is only one level of government or sub units are subordinate to the central government. Jurisdiction: The area over which someone has legal authority, that area may be defined in terms of geographical units or in terms of geographical units or in terms of certain/specific matters, is known as Jurisdiction.

Tier system: Tier system is the system which signifies levels of government. It may be two levels or two tiers and three levels or three tier.
Coming Together Federation: It is a type of federation in which independent states come together on their own to form a bigger unit, so that by pooling sovereignty and retaining identity they can increase their security. Holding Together Federation: It is a type of federation in which a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent states and the National government. List System: List System states the distribution of powers or subjects through the list like Union List for central/union level, state list for state level, etc. It is the specific feature of Indian federalism Union List: It is the list given under the Jurisdiction of Union government. It includes the subjects or matter of national importance like defence, finance, external affairs, currency, etc. Union government alone can make laws on the Union List subjects.
State List: State List is given under the jurisdiction of State Government. It includes the subjects or matters of state and local importance. State government alone can make laws on the state list subjects.

Concurrent List: Concurrent list stands for the subjects of common interest to both the Union Government as well as the state government. For the concurrent list subjects both the Union as well as the state government can make laws. Residuary subjects: Residuary subjects are the leftover subjects which do not fall in any one of the three lists. One the residuary subjects only the union government can legislate e.g., computer software and internet. Union Territories: Union Territories are the areas which are run by the Union Central government. They are too small to become an independent state but could not be merged with any of the existing states. E.g., Chandigarh. Coalition government: coalition government is a government formed by the coming together of more than two political parties, since no single party got a clear majority. Decentralization: When power is taken away from Central and State governments and given to local government it is called Decentralization. This concept helps to inculcate a habit and culture of democratic participation even at the gross root level.

Q. 1  What is Gram Panchayat?
Ans. It is a council consisting of several ward members, often called panch and a president or a sarpanch.
Q. 2. .  What is a Panchayat Samiti?
Ans. A few gram panchayats are grouped together to form a panchayat Samiti or Block or a Mandal.
Q . 3.  Who is a Mayor?
Ans. A Mayor is an elected Chairperson of the Municipal Corporation.
Q. 4.  Mention any four features of the federalism.
Ans.

1. The power is divided between a central authority and its various constituent units.
2. Different tiers of government govern the same citizens.
3. The fundamental provisions of the government cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government.
4. It has a dual objective, i.e., to safeguard and promote the unity of the country, and also to accommodate the regional diversity.

Q. 5 . Why were the linguistic states created? What are their advantages?
Ans. The Linguistic states were created to ensure that the people who spoke the same language lived in the same state.

1. It has made the country more united and stronger.
2. It has also made administration easier.

Q. 6. Mention any four difficulties of local government in India.
Ans.

1. Most states have not transferred significant powers to the local governments.
2. There is a shortage of resources.
3 .Elections are not held regularly.
4. Gram sabha are not held regularly.

Q. 7.  What is Gram Sabha? Mention its functions.
Ans . Every adult of the village who is 18 years of age constitute the Gram Sabha.

1. It is the decision making body of the entire village.
2. The village panchayat works under the supervision of the Gram Sabha.
3. It approves the annual budget of the Gram Panchayat.

Q. 8.  What is Panchayati Raj? What is its importance?
Ans. Rural local government is known as the Panchayati Raj.

1. It helps the people to directly participate in decision making.
2. It helps in the decentralization of power.
3 .It reduces the burden of the central government.

Q. 9.  Distinguish between coming together federation and holding together federation.
Ans. Coming Together federations

1. Under this independent states come together on their own to form a bigger unit.
2. Under this, all constituent states usually have equal power.
3. USA, Switzerland and Australia

Holding together federations

1. Under this, a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent states and the national government.
2. Under this central government tend to be more powerful.
3. India, Spain and Belgium.

Union List

1. It includes subjects of national importance. This list consists of 97 subjects. Most important among these are defence, atomic energy, foreign affairs, etc.
2. The parliament is solely empowered to enact laws on subjects included in the Union List.

State List

1. State list contains subjects of state and local importance such as police, trade. It has altogether 66 subjects.
2. The state legislature along can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the State List.

Concurrent List

1. It includes subjects of common interests to both the union government as well as the state government, such as, education, forests, trade unions, marriage, adoption and successions, press, etc.
2 .Both the union as well as state governments can make laws on the concurrent List subjects. But in case of a conflict between the central and states laws, central law prevails.
3. Distinguish between Federal form of government and Unitary form of government.

Federal form of government

1. Under the federal system there are two levels of government, one at the central level and other at the state level. Both levels have their areas of jurisdiction.
2. In federal system a state government has power of its own for which it is not answerable to the central government.
3. Central government cannot order the state government to do something.

Unitary form of government.

1. But in Unitary form of government either there is only one level of government or the sub-units are subordinate to the central government.
2. On the other hand in unitary system the state government does not have power of its own.
3. The central government can pass on orders to the local government.

Q. 10 . What is the importance or need for decentralization?
Ans.

1. The basic idea behind decentralization is that there are a large number of problems and issues which are best settled at the local level. People have a better knowledge of problems in their localities. They also have better ideas on where to spend money, and how to manage things more efficiently.
2. At the local level, it is possible for the people to directly participate in decision making. This helps to inculcate a habit of democratic participation. Local government is the best way to realist one important principle of democracy, namely the local self government.

Q.11 Explain the major key features of federalism.
Ans .

1. Two or more levels or government:- Federalism is a system of government in which the government is divided between a central authority and its various constituent units. Usually, a federation has two levels of government. One is the government for the entire country, and the other governments at the state or provincial level.
2. Same citizens separate jurisdiction:- Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
3. Superiority of constitution: The jurisdiction of the respective levels or tiers of government are specified in the constitution. So the existence and authority of each tier of government are constitutionally safeguarded.
3. Rigid constitution: The fundamental provisions of the constitutions cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government.
4. Dual objective: The federal system thus has dual objectives: to safeguard and promote the unity of the country, while at the same time, accommodate the regional diversity.